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      凤凰体育注册appByChenDaofu,,2014(Total4617)"Unreal"ElementsInnature,(suchasexpectationforfuturepricehike,sometheoriesofassetspriceappraisal,derivativemoneythatisnotbasedonrealsavings,unreasonableimplicitguaranteesbygovernments,whichareakindofseparationfromthereality),thenationaleconomyformsinacertainlocalfieldaself-circulationsystemthatisinconsistentwithabiggersystem,butcanbemaintainedwithinaconsiderablylongperiodoftimethroughself-fulfillingmechanism,policy,cesofotherstructuresofthesystem,cehike(price-typebubble)orcontinuedincreaseofsupply(quantity-typebubble).Bubblesseasierfersdoesnotevolvealongasmoothcurve;insteadtherearerotationsbetweencentralcountries(inviewoftheevolvementhistoryofcapitalisminrecent500years,centralcountriesoftenfirstlyundergotheperiodofcommodityandserviceexpansion,andthengraduallydeclineinthefinancialexpansionperiod,withrotationsbetweendifferentcentralcountries1),,thedrivingforceofeconomicgrowthchangesandthemainsocialconflictchanges,sunderstanding,macropolicy,economicsystemandorganizationstillstayontheoriginalgrowthpath,orartificiallykeepeconomicgrowthspeedattheleveloftheprecedingperiodwiththehelpofrelevantsectorssuchassomeindustrialinvestmentsectors,realty,andevenconsumptionsectors,untries,tendstohavebubblesduringtheshiftingprocessNationalEconomyDuetovariouskindsofsubjectiveandobjectivecauses,therearelotsofseparationsatdifferentlevelsintheoperationofChinasnationaleconomy,andtheseseparationsformthreerelativelyimportantself-circulations,:doublesurpluses–,Chinaisapartofthe,,theFederalReservegreatlyloosenedmonetarypolicy,causingconsumptionbubbles,,someEuropeancountrieshavegreatlyincreasedtheissuanceoftheirtreasurybonds,keepingtheirinterestratelow,sexport-orieecountries,andmanufacturesa,andbeguntheirinfrastructureconstructions,s,creatinghugetradesurpluses,whichhavechanged,underthecurrentexchangesettlementandsalessystem,intothemoneyissuedbybanksandthecentralbanktoexportdepartments(whenmoneysupplyaggregateisundercontrol,moneyissuancebynon-tradedepartmentsissuppressedtoacertainextent).Underthespecificexchangerateandforeignexchangeadministrativesystem,themoneyisconvertedintohugeamountofforeignexchangereserve,whichisinvestedinfinancialmarketsintheUnitedStatesandEurope,bringingdowntheirinterestrate,providingthemwiththefinancialsupportforconsumingproductswithborrowedmoney,theunrestrainedUSdollarissuance(eddieMac)haveenabledsuchapractice(Figure1).:aMajorImpedimenttoIndustrializationofHighTechnologyExperiencesofforeigncountrieshaveprovedthat,intechnologicaldevelopmentsystem,transsthescientificresearchachievementsmadebyscientificresearchinstitutes,universi,theratiooftransformationofresearchachievementshasforyearsbeenaroundalowlevelof5%,ades,wepacedalongtheoldpathtotransferscientificre,thefundsprovidedbythegovernmentwerefarfromsufficienttosupportthetransformationofresearchachievements,so,somewithmarketpotentialhadtobes,duetothelackofrealinvestmentbodiesandmechanismsoflimitingcost,andencouragingbettereconomicreturnsfrominvestmentinparticular,theeffectofthefundsusedforthetransformationofresearchachievementswasverylow,therefore,itcouldhardlyposeavirtuouscyc,therealityisthatscientificresearchandhi-techindustryareseparatedasiftheybelongedtodifferentsectors:Scientificresearchersdonotcareforcommercialbenefitsfortheirach,meanwhile,hasnowaytoarousetheenthusiasmofresearchersinupgradingproductsandprtegrationofthetwosegments,,thegovernmentmadetremendouseffortstoencouragebanksreditco-opsinvariousareasacrossthecountry,thegovernmentsparednoeffortstoadjusti,however,nologicalenterprisesdidnotoperateasoriginallyrequired,butturnedintonon-bank,commercialbanksbecamenotso"obedient"asbeforewhentheirreformtowar’sBankofChinain1998showedthattheenterpriseslocatedinthehi-techdevelopmentzonesinBeijing,Tianjin,Jilinandotherprovincesandmunicipalitieswereuniversallyhauntedbyshortageoffunds,,forinstance,plannedanincreaseofRMB100millionasspecialloansearmarkedforscientificandtechnologicaldevelopmentin1997,gNewTechnologyIndustrialDevelopmentandTestZonehasalsorevealedthatonly7%oftheenterpriseslocatecingmethod,plansandadministrativemeasures,commercialbanks,obligedbytheirpromisesofrepayingtheprincipalsandintereststodepositors,havetooperateinasteadfastwayathecharacteristicsofhigh-techenterprisesthatareunstable,lackingguaranteeassets,,therefore,banksappeartobeveryprudentintheirselectionoftargetproj,’sBankofChina,theshort-termloanswithinoneyearaccountedformorethan95%entralgovernmentestablishedtheprincipleofactivelypromotingdevelopmentofhi-techindustry,therehasbeenacommonunderstandinginrecentyearsthatthecapitalmarkattheShanghaian,thestatusquoofChina’scapitaoneisatypicalexample:a)Ofthe2,343joint-stockenterpriseslocatedinBeijing’sZhongguancunarea,onlythreeraisedfundstotalingRMB860millionfromthestockexchangebyissuingA-sharesin1998.(StudyReportofBeijingNewTechnologyIndustrialDevelopmentandTestZone,1999)b)Therehasbeennoexamplesoforthatanyscientificandtechnicale)ThepropertyrightsmarketinBeijinghasbeenkeptbypainstakingeffortssinceitsestablishment,,)TheBeijingMunicipalGovernmentpooledRMB500millionin1998ands.Withotherfundsearmarkedforventureinvestment,thet,,whilethedeep-rootedcauseliesintheincompletenessofmarketandrisksassessmentsystemsandinsomepr)Atpresent,therearethreeguaranteefundsinBeijingforsmallandmedium-sizedhigh-techenterprises,setupbythemunicipalgovernment,formalitiesforobtainingguaranteesaretoocomplicatedanddifficult,whe,however,thatmorethanhalfofhi-techenterprisesagreeth%ofenterpriseshavetakeortinghi-techenterprises,themajorproblemslyinginChina’scapitalmarketaremanifestedinthefollowingfouraspects:a)’scurrentmarketwithaunitarylayercanneithermeetthefinancingdemandofalargenumberofsmallandmedium-sizedhigh-techenterprises,,Chinascapitalmarkethasdevelopedtowardshighcentralizationandsimplifiedtobetwostockexchanges,imited,itisinevitabletoexcludecertainmar,namely,thestockexchange,thismarketisboundtofavorbige’traisesufficientfundsfromthecapitalmarket,wlayeroftrading,itscapacitywouldbelimiteddueto,aphenomenonatChinasstockexchanges,,invederaconsiderableamountofsocialfundsfromenteringintothecapitalmarket,thusleavingthemidle....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

      tyearFacedwiththeextremelycomplexeconomicsituationbothathomeandabroad,thePartyCentralCommitteeandtheStateCouncilhadadoptedaseriesofstepssincethebeginningofthisyeartovigorouslyexpan:acceleratedindustrialproduction,aturnforthebetterinthelinkbetweenproductionandsales,edbybiggerprofitsyieldedbystate-ownedenterprises(SOE),thetotalretailamountofsocialconsumergoodswentupwhilethefallinconsumergoAugust,andrecordedanegativeincreaseinSeptember,,theinternaldrivingforceforeconomicgrowthisstillnotsufficient,anabilityforsustainedexpansionhasnottakenshapeintheeconomic,eco,economicoperation,affectedbythechangeinthemacrocontrolintensity,eeconomicrecovery,includingissuing60billionyuanadditionaltreasurybonds,increasingtheincomeofurbanresidents,ra,someofthepositivechangesintheeconomicoperationareclosely,thebigreboundintheexportssinceJulyisbenefitpartlyprofitedfromthe,whilethetotalretailamountofsocialconsumergoodspickedupalittle,thegrowthinfixedassetinvestmentsliddownandthepaceoflendingexpansionslowe,theincreaseincapitalinvestmentbythestateandothertypesofeconomies(excludinginvestmentbyurbanandruralcollectively-ownedeconomyandindividuals)stoodatzero,,theamountofn,einviewofthecurrentecon,ChinahasaccumulatedexperienceinmasteringtheintensityandopportunityofmacroeconomicpolicypracticalstepstowardthisdirectionworkedoutbytheFourthPlenarySessionoftheFifteenthCPCCentralCommiketeconomyhasstriddenforwardandtheimplementationofthe“SolelyOwnedEnterpriseLaw”andthe“SecuritiesLaw”hasensuredt,mostofthecountriesandareashitbythefinancialcrisishavebeenrecoveri,,theJapaneseeconomyisationalMonetaryFundputtherateat3percent,,itishardtofun/spendingexpectationhasnotbeenturnedforthebetterandthe’sincome,ancialinstitutions,theirabilitytofendoffrisksstillremainslowandthefund-raisingchannelsforthenonstate-ownedeconomy,smallandmedium-sizedenterprisesandventurebusinessinparticular,arestillnotunblocked,theexpansionofinvestme,,tratesareadjusteddownsidewhilethecurrentaccountdeficitiswidening,,,financialriskisstountri’ntained,theexpansionistfinancialpolicycontinuestobeimplemented,therearenomajorupsanddownsinthegradualrecoveryoftheinternationaleconomy,andnomajornaturaldisasteroccursinChinanextyear,China’seconomyforthecomingyearwillmaintainitscontinuedstabledevelopment....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.大发体育BBIN夜市人生--Ananalysisofeconomicsituationinthefirstquarterof2013andprospectsforthewholeyearDRCTaskForceonAnalysisofEconomicPerformanceDespitetheoveralleconomicupturnworldwidesince2013,structuralcontradictionsandriskshaveincreasedintheChineseeconomy,whenreductionoflong-andmedium-termpotentialgrowthrat,weshouldaimthemacroeconomicpoliciesatproperlyhandlingtherelationshipsbetweenstableeconomicgrowth,,throughadoptingrelevantreformmeasures,releasethegrowthpotential,consolidateinvestmentandincreaseconsumption;innovateonsectoralregulationpatterns,activelyandsteadilymitigateovercapacityandfacilitatethereadjustmentofeconomicstructure;adoptthepolicyofstoppinguploopholeswhileopeningupnewchannelssoastograduallyreleasefinancialrisks,toconstantlyimprovethequalityofgrowthandeconomicbenefitan%Inthefirstquarter,theglobaleconomicperformancetookaturnforthebetter,whichhelpedtodriveforwardthe,theChineseeconomyiswitnessingareductionoflong-andmedium-termpotentialgrowthratesintertwinedwiththeweakrecoveryoftheshort-termeconomiccycle,increasedstructuralcontradictionsandrisksas,stableinvestment,theupturnperformanceofworldeconomyandpublicexpectationsforeconomicimprovement,China%inthefirstquarter,whichisalittlelowerthaninQ42012,%.orscoexistedwithnegativeonesPositivefactorsonthedemandsideincluded:first,exportgrowthroseevidently,%,,China,infrastructureandrealestateinvestmentmaintaineditsupturnmomentum,andthenominalgrowthexceeded20%.Theurbanfixedassetinvestmentmaintainedasteadygrowthand,amongothers,investmentgrowthspeededupinChina,,,%,,,duringthefirstquarter,%,soverallgrowthrate,,accountingforanaverageratioof34%overrecent5years,anditwill,incaseofacontinuousdownturn,insomeindustriesIncontrasttothedifferentiationofthedemandside,,theyear-on-yearaccumulativegrowthoftheindustrialaddedvaluehadremainedat10%,importantindustrialproductssuchasautomobiles,steel,cement,integratedcircuit,powerandcommunicationequipment,stsintheinteractiverelationshipbetweensupplyanddemand,,enterpriseswi,,thecontinuityoftheriseininventoryisdetermpo,,,thecapacityutilizationinsuchindustriesassteel,automobile,cement,nonferrousmetal,textile,hsectorsasinfrastructureandrealestate,whichareanimportantdrivingforcefordemandgrowth,,excessivelyrapidgrowthofdemand,ifany,islikelytostimulatethegrowthofinvestmentinovercapacityindustries,mprovethecapacityutilizationtoacertainextentwithoutincurringenormousinvestmentstimulusbutgainingtimeforthereduction%Theworldeconomicsituationisbetterthanlastyear,boththetertiaryandmanufacturingindustriesareexpanding,andthecapacityutilizationhashitanall-timehighover62monthstime;therealestatesectorcontinuestorevive,withthehousingsalesreachingarecordhighover39months;theemploymentfigurehasreachedthepre-crisislevel,%;andcorpor,thePMIofEurozonesserviceandmanufacturingindustries,theeconomicboomindexaswellastheinvestmentconfidenceindexalldroppedinMarch,d,thereturnrateofnationaldebttreasurybondsofvariousEurozonecountrieswentdownnotably,bytheShinzoAbegovernment,,,theeconomicobserverprospectsindexadandfourthquarterslastyear;andinFebruary,PMIsoftheBRICcountriesalltopped50,suggestingthew,itispredictedthatChinasexportgrowthwillreachabout10%....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

      ZhaoJinpingResearchReportNo7,2000TheissueofbalanceofinternationalpaymentsequilibrceagainthedegreeofimportanceofthisissueininfluencingtheprocessofeconomicdeveminChinasincethe1980sisnotonlyapracticaldemonstrationofStatepolicyofopeningtotheoutsideworldandtheachievementsineconomicdevelopment,butalsoanimportanevelopmentofdomesticeconomy,Chinawillenteracompletelyneweraofopening-up,andbalanceofinternationalpaymentsequilibriumasacentralizedreflectionofdomesticandforeigneconomicrelationswillexperiencenkingaboutbalanceofinternationalpaymentsequilibrium,itisnecessarytomakeananalysisandevaluationofthemajorcharacteristicsandinfluences’sBalanceofInternationalPaymentsEquilibriumsince1982Generallyspeaking,overallbalance,basicbalance,balanceofcurrentaccounts,andbalanceofcommoditytradeconstitutethefourimportantathecompetitiveedgesofdomesticcommoditiesandservices,whilebasicbalanceisakindofcomprehensivebalanceintegratingcurrentaccountsandlong-termcapitaltoreflductionoferrorsandomissionsandthebalanceofcapitalaccounts(referstocapitalandfinancialaccountsinstatementsofthebalanceofinternationalpayments),itreflec,thebalanceofcurrentaccountsandthebalanceoftradeinthestatementsofbalanceofinternationalpaymentsofChinaexperiencedatransition,,,,however,surplusininternationalpayments(seeTable1).Table1Changesininternationalpaymentsbetween1982and1998Unit:millionUSdollarsGeYanfengResearchReportNo83,2001Theissueofincomedistribution,however,istheobviousdisagreementintheanalysisandjudgmentarenteffectsengendered;itisthereforen,theoutstandingprobleminincomedistributionhadbeenegalitarianismcausedbythesystemofcen,therewasnotonlytheproblemofegalitarianismleftoverfromthesystemofcentrallyplannedincomedistribution,butalsothatofwideningincomegaparisingfromtheeconomicsystemreformandthemajorchangeinincomedistribution,,whatistheoutstandingproblem–egalitarianismandwideningincomegap,coexistatpresentandtheyareratheracute;,differencebetweentwojudgmentsactuallyconcentratesontheproblemofegalitarianism,thatis,,theproblemofegalitarianism,particularlytheminorincomegapinandamongthestate-owneddepartments,ismostoutstanding,,judgingfromthegeneralsituation,theboomingnon-statesectors,bothinthecountrysideandcities,decidetheirincomedistributionmechanismbymarketcompetition,andwiththeincomegapwidened,,asthereformadvances,state-ownedenterpriseshaveessentiallyestablishedtheirroleaskeymarketplayers,aduallywidening,andinsomeenterprises,,onecanhardlyjumptotheconclusionthategali,thedistributionsystemcharacterizedbyegalitarianismthatwecouldseeisthebasicwagedistributionmainlyingovernmentdepartments,,however,isthatthebasicwagesconstituteasmallportionofincome,andtherearestillotherformsofdistributionasnon-wagecashdistr,itisalsodifficulitarianisminincomedistribution,sometendtoadvocatethegovernment’sspeedingupwagereformsinthestate-ownedsectors,orinsimplewords,furtherwideningthewagedistributiongapwithanaimtosolvethetate-ownedsectorsisconsideredaproblem,suchanproposalasdi,,inprinciple,relyonincreasingthetotalpayroll,furtheriillintheloss-makingstatusmanylocalgovernmentshavefinancialdifficulties,itishardtopredictifthereissufficientcapabilitytomakesuchadjustmentorwhatconse,itishighlypos,non-wagecashincomeandnon-cashincomeinvariousformsmakealargeandunevenproportioninthetotalincomedistribution,,thedifference,bigorsmall,,itishig,theincomedistributioninthestate-ownedandstateholdingenterprisesinthecompetitivefieldsshallbegraduallyliberalizedonthebasisofdiversifiedstockrightsandimprovementintheinternalcorporategovernance,utionofenterprises,itwouldbedetrimentaltotherelationshipbetweenthegovernmentandenterprises,neitherwillitbeconstructivet,itishighlyposs,institutionsandindustrieswithnaturalmonopolyshouldbecontrolledbythegovernment,butsuchcontrolandtheextentofcontrolmustbedecidedwithreferencetosuchfactorsassocialaveragewagesonthebasisofintroducinginte,simplyimposingwagecontrolisextremelyundesirableforvariousreformmeasures,,,itisobviousthatpublicattentionconcentratesontheproblemofthewideningincomegap,,itisabsolutelyunwisetoregardas,itshouldbeconductedonthebasisofathoroughreformofpersonnelsystemanddistributionmethods(suchasfullmonetizationofincomeandanadequatetruthfulnessofwages).anceofthesocietySincetheadoptionofreformandopeninguppolicy,thewideningincomegapamongresidentsand,ther,leranceofsociety,toapproachtheextremelimitofunacceptabilitybythesociety,,theestimatedGinicoefficient(withurbanandruralcombined)’incomeandurbanincomeandseriousstatisticalerrorsinhighincomesandillegalincomes,,socialc,awideincomegapinevitablymeanspovertyforsomepeople,orevenalargeproportionofthesocialmembers,,weshouldbeonthefullalertforthecurrentobjectiveincomegap,letaloneotherfactors....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.凤凰体育注册app

      凤凰体育注册appWangYuanLiZhaoxi InaccordancewiththedecisionoftheBraPlenarySessionofthe14thPartyCongressontheestablishmentofmodernenterprisesystems,mostofChinaslargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterpriseshavebeentransformedintocompaniessince1994inkeepingwiththeprovisionsoftheCompanyLawofthePeople,themanagementande,theoperatingef,enterprises,,theStateCouncildispatchedspeci,extravagantspendingofpublicfunds,delinquencydebtsandfundtra,itisnouseegovernancestructureOnestrikingfeatureof,asamodernenterprisehasawidescopeofbusinessanditsinternalstructureiscomplex,itwouldbeimpossiblefortheenterpr,astheoperationsofanyenterprisearesubjecttotheconstraintofthepropertyrights,itwouldalsobeimpossiblefortheenterprisetooperatewelliftheownersoftheenterprisespropertyrightslosetheirfinalcontrolovertheenterpriseandallowthemanagerstopursuetheirownintereststh,thecoreofamodernenterprisesystemisthecorporategovernancestructure,whetheracompanycanoperatewelldependsfirstofallo,thefollowingproblemsthatseriouslyaffecttheestablishmentandoperationofthecorporategovernancestructureoccurredinmanyChinesestate-ownedenterpriseswhentheyweretransformedintocompanies:First,abatchofso-called"plaque-changecompanies"citiesinthecourseofbeingtransformedintocompanies,thatwasinfactaprocessof"plaguechange"fortfereinthedecision-makingoftheenterprisesintheareasofpersonnel,finance,materialssupply,tofmodernenterprisesystemswereactuallyturnedintothesolelystate-ownedcompan,frompersonnelappointmentandinvestmentplanningtotheinter-enterprisemergersandreorganizations,stillhavetobemadeaccordin,theinternaldecision-makingbodiesoftheenterprisesareoverlappedandthereareseveralleadingbodiestoissueseparateorders,whichmakesc,widescopeofbusiness,,itisnecessarytoestablishamanagementsystemthattakesthewage-earningseniormanagersasitscoreandtheChiefExecutiveOfficer(CEO)asitsleader,exercisingcentralizedandunifiedleadershipoverthecompany-wideproductionandoperating,itsdecision-makingbodiesincludethe"oldthreehuis"(thepartycommittee,thetradeunionandtheemployeescongress)andthe"threenewhuis"(thegeneralmeetingofshareholders,theboardofdirectorsandthesupervisoryboard),theyarecharacterizedas"threehearts"(whichmeanstakingthefactorydirectorasthecenterandthepartycommitteeasthecoreandrelyingwholeheartedlyontheworkingclass)and"twominds"(whichmeansthepowersandresponsibilitiesarenotclearlydefined).Ifthesepowerorgansareledbydifferentpeople,,everybodytriestograbdecision-makingpowers;whensomeproblemsemerge,accordingtoChinasCompanyLaw,hisday-to-dayoperatingdecision-makingfacesinterferencefrommanysourcesandit,ifallthesepositionsareassumedconcurrentlybyonesameperson,thebehaviorsofthegeneralmanagerwillbefreeofthecontroloftheownersandotherstakeholdersanditisverylikelyforasituationtoemerge,inwhich"insiderscontrol"and"everythingisdoneinhisownway".Third,intheenterprisesthatenjoyafairlyhighdegreeofautonomy,thephenomenonthat"thecontrolofinsidershasgoneoutofcontrol",althoughtheseniormanagersenjoyahighdegreeofautonomywithintheirscopeofauthority,theiroperatingactivitiesaresubjecttotheoverallsupervisionoftheshareholdersandotherstakeholdersthroughtheboardsofdirectors,andreceive,decadesofreformin"decentralizingpowersandofferinginterestconcessions"hasmadepeoplewidelybelievethatthehighestprincipleofreformistogivethe"enterprises"(actuallytheirmanagers),the"authorizedmanagementofthestate-ownedassets",thegentransfoinalcontrolrightoftheenterprisesintheircapacityas"representativesofthejuridicalpersons".Infact,theyaremanagingthesestate-ownedassetswithfullpowersandwithoutinternalorexternalsupervision,hencethephenomenonthat"theinsiderscontrolhasgoneoutofcontrol".ThedecisionoftheStateCounciltodispatchspecialinspectorstoauditthesolelystate-ownedenterprisesdersinthecorporategovernancestructurehavenotbeenclearlydefinedandasthereisnoregularsupervisionoverthecorporateoperations,eventheseverepunishmentsmetedouttothoseresponsibleaftertheexternalauditbythespecialinspectorsareoftenproventobetoolatetorecoverthelosses.Figure1TypesofEconomicGrowthTrajectoryTheaboveclassificationmainlyfocusesontheeconomictake-offandthegrowthrate,,itisbelievedthatoncetakingoff,holeprocessofin,101economiesaroundtheworldhavesteppedintothegroupofmiddleincomecountries;andby2008,only13ofthemdevelopedtobehigh-incomecountries,completedtheirepicmissionofcatchingupandsucceededinnaturallandingathighincomelevels(theireconomicgrowthpatternisshownintherightpartofthesolidblacklineinFigure1).ThesesuccessfuleconomiesincludeJapan,SouthKorea,TaiwanofChina,HongKongSAR,PuertoRico,Mauritius,,witnessedeconomicstagnationorevenrecessionduetovariousreasonsduringcatchingup,andfellintothe"middleincometrap2"(theirgrowthpatternisshownbytheredlineinFigure1).Examplesincl-upprocesstherearetwodifferentscenarios:oneisanaturallanding,featuredwithsuccessfulindustrialization,slowdownoftheeconomicgrowthafterthecompletionofthecatching-upmissionandtheproduction(orgrowth)peaksofrepresentativeindustrialproductssuchasinfrastructure,housing,,,Germany,JapanandSouthKorea,whichcaughtupsuccessfullyaftertheWorldWarII,,whichmeansthemissionofcatchingupfailswhenthecatchingupprocessisinterruptedduetoproblemsintheeconomicsystem,developmentstrategy,andsocialdifferentiation,orforotherreasons,,000–6,,theeconomicgrowthslowsdownsharply–mostlybymorethan50%4–,,especiallysince2011,theChineseeconomyhastakenonsomenewcharacteristics,makingpeopleshowmoreandmoreconcernaboutthefactthatwhatalandingwillChinahaveinitseconomiccatchingupprocessandwillitbeanaturallandingorafallintothemiddleincometrap...Ifyouneedthefullcontext,"middleincometrap".Itroughlydescribessuchaphenomenon:whenacountrygetsridoftheMalthusianCycle,itseconomy,featuredwithindustrialization,willseethestartofeconomicgrowthinamodernsense;itsper-capitaaverageincomewillimprovesignificantlyinaperiodoftime,,itseconomystagnatesorrecedesforalongperiodandfailtogrowintoahig,Germany%;in1969whenitsper-capitaGDPreached10,440internationaldollars,,%.InJapan,%;andafteritsper-capitaGDPreached11,434internationaldollarsin1973,itseconomicgrowthdecelerated,and;from1973to1983,%.InSouthKorea,%;in1995whenitsper-capitaGDPreached11,850internationaldollars,itseconomicgrowthalsosloweddownevidently,%,from1981to2000,Brazil,ArgentinaandMexicoseconomyslippedintoprotractedstagnation,%,50%%respectivelyincomparisonwiththeaveragesduringtheirrapidgrowthperiod(1950-1980).Again,from1950to1975,theaverageannualGDPgrowthrateofformerSovietUnion,Hungary,%,%,%%respectivelywhileduringtheperiodfrom1976to2000,%(forformerSovietUnion,thefigurewastheaggregatesofallmembercountriesafteritsdisintegration),%,-%%respectively.

      ByWuPingGuShuzhong,ResearchTeamon"PoliciesofComprehensivePreventionandTreatmentforSoilPollution",ResearchInstituteofResourcesandEnvironmentPoliciesofDRCResearchReport,,2013(Total4483)hernregionofChinaisexpo,suchasInnerMongoliaandareasalongtheGreatWall,LoessPlateau,GansuandXinjiangareaandnortheastregion,theagriculturalsdheavymetalinsoil,thesoilinsouthwesterncarbonaterockaollution,contaminatedareasabandonedbyindustrialcompanies,wasteyardsofdifferentkinds,,largeareasofarablelandsufferfromcombinationoforganicandinorganicpollutionsandtheiracceptabl,a,cadmiumisamajorone;andamongorganicpollutants,DDTconstitutesthelion,cadmium,selenium,lead,chrome,arsenic,nickel,antimonyandzincsoilpollutionaswellasseverecombinedpollution,,irrationalpilingofresissoilpollutionbeginstospreadfromindustrytoagriculture,fromurbantoruralareas,fromthesurfacetotheunderground,fromtheupstreamtothedownstream,relatedwithmanyfactorssuchasthechemicalcompositionofthesoilparentmaterial,soilqualityandconstitutesamajorreasonfortheover-standardcontentofheavymetalinsouthwestern,velopedindustryandminingindustryattributabletoemissionsofwastegas,wastewaterandwasteresidualsfromoresmelting,coalcombustionandotheractivitiesOutdoorpilingandderatmosphericfalloutandrainfallandcausepollutionafteryears,/hectareofcadmiumtothesoileachyearinChangzhutanareainHunanprovince,%ndnon-pointagriculturalpollutioncausedbyfoulwaterirrigationPesticidesarethemajororganicpollutan,DDTandotherpesticidesremaininginthesoilforalongtimecanconcent,ehavebeenusedeachyearinChina,damagingthesoilstructure,hardeningthesoil,leadingtofarmlands,,includingdomesticandindustrialsewagewhichisnottreatedorbelowthestandardfordischargeandcontainspoisonousandharmfulsubstanceslikeheavymetal,ectlydisposedtosoilcanradiateandfunneltosurroundingsoilundertheeffectsofsunbaking,soharmthesoilsdecaycapacity,changeitspropertya,radioactivesubstancesgeneratedfromuraniumandthoriummining,uraniumenrichment,disposalofnuclearwaste,nuclearexplosion,nuclearexperiment,thermanvironmentalproblemoftheglobalconcern,asitnotonlyaffectsthesoilqualityandproductivity,butalsoharmsfoodsafety,peopledsafetyTheuseofalargeamountofchemicalfertilizersandpesticidescandecreasethecontentoforganicsubstancesinthesoil,har,especiallyheavymetalpollutionandlastingorganicpollution,cancausefoodsafetyissuesthroughabsorptionbyagriculturalcrops,,shealthPollutantsinsoilcanaccumulateinplantsandconcentrate,heavymetalcanaccumulateinsomehumanorgansandcausecancer,deformityandmutation,,theheavymetalwasresponsibleformanyshockingenvironmentincidents,suchasthe"itai-itai"diseaseinToyama,Japancausedby"cadmiumrice"and"Minamatadisease",manypollutionincidentsbrokeoutsuchascadmiumrice,bloodlead,chromicslagandarsenicpoisoning,incidencerateofmalignanttumorsincreasedyearbyyear,and"weirddiseases"qualityandproductivity,butalsocausesthepollutionofsurfaceandundergroundwater,degradationoftheatmosphericenvironmentanddeteriorationoftheeco-systemaswellasmanyotherseconda,withouttakindindustrialconstructionprojectsnorbenchmarksforevaluatingrisksoflandforresidence,tsandstaffaredeficientinsomeplaces,andmonitoringstationsareinsufficientinm,sluggishcirculationofmonitoringdata,,thesamplingdensityofsoilinvestigationconductedbytheMinistryofLandandResourcesis1point/km2,samplesfromeach4km2arecombinedandanalyzed,’ssoilpollution,butcanhardlyspecifythedistributionofheavymetalpollutionandthuscannotclarifytheaccurateintensityofsoilpollutionineacharea.Note::Authorssion,,housingconditionsforurbanresidentswillbeconsiderablyimproved,,andpercapitahousingflooragewillexceed34squaremeters(%andaresidenturbanpopulationof920million).Meanwhile,therewillbeabout340millionhousingunits,,,rofworking-agepopulationinChina,itspossibletocalculatethedistributionofhousingdemandalongthetimelineinthenextdecade,,,,easunderconstructioninthepastyears,,thepeakofnewhousingstartsisexpectedtoarrivebefore2015,whereastha,overallgrowthrateofhousinginvestmentwillbenotablyslowerthanbefore(Table1).Inthelasttwoyearsofthe12thFive-YearPlanperiod,theactualgrowthrateofurbanhousinginvestmentcalculatedbasedonconstructionareawilllikelyfallbelow10%,whileduringthe13thFive-YearPlanperiodandafter2020,theactualgrowthrateisverylikelytobelowerthan5%.,thenationalsupplyofurbanhousinghasmaintainedarapidgrowthrateingeneral,andthefloorspaceofcommercialhousingforsalehasrisensignificantly,butthereisstillanobvioussupply-,%,forinstance,afterthesharpreboundofhousingsalesin2012,thefloorspaceofsoldcommercialhousinggrewatarelativelysteadypacein2013,whilethefloorspaceofcommercialhousingfo,thehousingpricecurveinfirst-tiercitiesand,housingpriceinlargefirst-tiercitieshasmaintai,Shanghai,GuangzhouandShenzhen,forexample,%,%,%%respectively(basedon100-citypriceindex).Ontheotherhand,month-on-monthgrowthrateofhousingpriceinsecond-tiercitieshasremainedrelativelystable,,themonth-on-monthcurveofhousingpriceindiffer:(1)percapitahousingfloorageinthispaperissmallerthanthenumberpublishedbytheNationalBureauofStatistics(NBS)(forspecificreason,pleaserefertothe"MediumandLong-termGrowth"researchgroupoftheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil,2013);(2)eaofhouseswithlimitedpropertyrightsisincorporated,thecurrent%NationalPopulationSampleSurvey2005,throughannualdepreciation....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.凤凰体育注册app

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